Call me back
We are always happy to call you back at a time convenient to you. Simply enter your details below, let us know when you would like to be called, and press 'Call Me Back'. Our office hours are 9-5 Monday to Friday, but if this is not convenient, we will always endeavour to call you out of hours.




Managing Challenging Behaviour Course Comments

Below is recent feedback received from our course participants. Participants were asked what things will they do differently in their job as a result of the training:


The recertification will always change my working practice! As I learn so much from the course content and from trainers and peers, can't wait for next year!
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainer Award (14-02-2017). Click here for course details

Practice the introduction of each of the physical skills to make clear why each skill in being done and to look at gently correcting skills/errors by group demonstrations.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainer Award (17-09-2014). Click here for course details

I feel more confident to go back and deliver further NAPPI sessions. Thank you so much for the 2 interesting and enjoyable days spent together. I really enjoyed the refresher training and the discussions that I had with my fellow trainers were very helpful.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainer Award (17-09-2014). Click here for course details

I will integrate the learning into more areas of our current policy and practice. greater reinforcement of use of language structure and processes. I will recognise and celebrate success within staff who actively promote NAPPI values and principles.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I will incorporate a couple of the new (to me) units. E.g. person of influence including the praise scale. Although I may not incorporate the hair/bite physical skills (at present not relevant) it is nice to know about them. The point by point breakdown of narrative for physical skills is most useful and will definitely of benefit to myself (and Those I train) The NEW Green Behaviour scale appears bit more understandable to me this time than last time. Thank you
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award How to use green skills and red behaviour scales in service user files and complete them with key workers and all the residents when they find new green activities they add their interests to their own charts.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I will ensure I use the keywords more frequently. I am very confident in the red and green behaviour scale as it flowed well. Enjoyed this trip and training.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Putting together a scale with becoming a person influence will give me another tool to use I feel flows so much better.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I am planning to include the behaviour scale documentation into my work areas to give common language and consistency. I will also use green behaviour scale to help support staff caring for residents and to see the clear link between Green and Red scales.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I have renewed confidence in my knowledge and ability to deliver NAPPI. Having time to write down instructions for some of the physical skills has served as providing a crib/note sheet and a comfort blanket.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Developing partnerships is a module that will help in training the staff, I am going to use this in update to help staff understand controlling relationships.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Developing partnerships I found to be a really good module and I believe will be of great benefit to teach in my workplace. It helps clarify and visually explains what I have witnessed so many times at work.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Developing partnerships, as this can break down in the workplace it will be good to work with staff to look at how we can work on this.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award It will help me to deliver this course appropriately to my workplace, correctly, and to show more confidence.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I think that the developing partnerships will be a great assistance in my workplace and therefore shall be added to my training.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award It will ensure I train as effectively as I can and am showing the staff group good practices that they can take away with them. Reminded me not to forget things and say the right wording instead of me putting my own words in.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I can pass on what I have learnt to other colleagues with easier explanations on different modules. Giving the best and getting the best from our service users. Also the learning I have undertaken will help me more in my job role as a trainer to deliver NAPPI to my participants getting better work practices from myself and my colleagues.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I will be able to deliver my training better as I know understand the green behaviour scale fully and Staff will be better trained.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Ensure looking out for good person centred practice and give confidence to challenge poor practice and coach improvement. Promote Green Behaviour Scale, especially in satellite homes where meaningful activities are limited.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I certainly feel more confident in my ability to teach physical skills and remember the key words. I have a much better understanding of the green behaviour scale and feel I could now present this to a group. I feel more confident in my ability as a trainer and I look forward to my next refresher course.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award The changes that have been made I will apply to my practice.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award I will be able to deliver a more confident course in future and present more knowledge.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award Refreshed NAPPI training for the staff that have already been trained in it keeping them engaged and interested by enhancing their NAPPI experience.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award It will enable me to deliver the level 3 techniques and enable me to deliver a full course confidently without my co-trainer present.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Final piece of the jigsaw both for my actual service and for my CPD. Enable me and others to support, support staff and managers and other trainers more effectively.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award As this was my first time on level 3 I will be able to train and support my staff wit level 3 skills and help maintain safety
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award it will underpin the fact that the company can continue to deliver NAPPI effectively as it has done for the past 12 years. with practice I will grow in confidence in delivering NAPPI to our staff.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will advise staff to practice the physical practices a lot more so that it becomes a lot more fluent to them when in the service.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award What i will take away is the importance of working as a team, giving clear directions and being confident in the skills. learning the squirt and dance I can see the value with, and how this could be valuable working with some service users. chunking great way of working and remembering.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will particularly look at NAPPI squirt and dance for use in my location, this seems a very useful tool to use, I need to in bed this method of thinking. teach NAPPI to all new staff that arrive and ensure that it is reinforced throughout our service.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award At present the level of challenging behaviours are minimal and easily directed with diffusion, however there are always new people coming into the service so these skills are still extremely useful for reference.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will be able to recognise when restraint is avoidable and use techniques and strategies to avoid RPI's
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will change/ adapt the recert sessions to making it more interesting and engage with participants more
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I normally work with service users who requires psychological support. this learning will help me to work in partnership with them.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Add person of influence into my training sessions.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award feel refreshed and confident to deliver green behaviour scale
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award enable me to assist with recerts in a much more dynamic way - for learners and myself. putting theorys into practice in a more meaningful way.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I feel it will keep service users and staff safe within the work place To give people time when learning the skills. I understand mechanics of breathing better now, from Jason's delivery.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award I will look forward to using the adaptations to green behaviour scale + will now be able to use the developing partnerships + people of influence more effectively as they are now much clearer to present.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award will definitely use the demo of sitting on the floor holding my knees to indicate restriction of breathing. Great idea. I will update /rewrite crib cards to make training more current and relevant. Again ideas from others for re-training which will come in handy.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award by delivering the training to all staff in the organisation and follow up with mentoring sessions
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award Person of influence Developing partnerships I feel the green behaviour scale has a much better lay out. which will help me teach others NAPPI dance and squirt is laid out much better and easier to teach which will be great help to get staff to understand the movements.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award to see and rehearse the 2 person moving restraint - excellent - will certainly help when back in the workplace - i can already think of the scenarios where this skill could have helped.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award I will make changes in our organisation account in order to use the NAPPI system to monitor training, particularly around incident reports and the example given is very easy to follow and ensure that all stages are recorded appropriately
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award I am going to review the time in which i deliver the course and renegotiate with management to increase the time allocated for the course. I may have to consider reviewing the content to add what i have learnt from this week and use the other information as glue pieces.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Really enjoyed it! thought the green scale was really powerful and I will defiantly want to deliver that in my training. also helped to challenge my bad habits, great coaching! Thanks!
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Guiding skill- I will teach it correctly now. Need to add in extra bits of behaviour scale to update my delivery.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Green behaviour scale will be very effective at my workplace.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Any new recertification will enjoy the new information, all new attendees techniques will be better practice and better skilled in the workplace.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Get me to kickstart NAPPI training in my organisation also train our senior staff so everyone knows more the importance of this, possibly see about getting it mandatory.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award This will help to create a safer environment, I will emphasise the importance of the right approach, and the importance of getting to know a person and enriching their lives.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Generating cooperation I have done the drama differently it worked but the correct way is better. Better understanding of guiding skill, I have forgotten it.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I can demonstrate the skills I have learnt and put into practice within my care home. looking forward to seeing the change it will make.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Share the green behaviour scale with colleagues. Use NAPPI incident reporting process to maintain consistency with the language we all use.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award NAPPI will affect all of our working practice as the psychology will be relevant to all service users even if they do not display behaviours that challenge inclusion.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Completely change working practice and company policy. I feel extremely excited about where NAPPI will take us as individuals and as a company.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award The course will revolutionise our practice, making a more psychological approach that will help us really improve the lives of the guys we support. It will also make us focus on getting the guys in their green zone, making their lives better. I am very excited about implementing what we have learnt.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Being SMART and thinking SMART. Help create further belief throughout the organisation by being part of the strong trainer team.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award It will make a huge difference to Condover College Limited. Glad to be part of it!
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Over the coming weeks we hope to implement NAPPI principles and techniques into our own company policies and procedures.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award As a group we will be bringing in the concept and training NAPPI throughout the organisation. Scary, but exciting times ahead!
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Roll out of NAPPI to all staff at Condover College Limited.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award promote safer practice for residents who require the use of level 3 restraints. looking forward to delivering level 3 training as required however will appreciate the support from other experienced NAPPI trainers i work with for my initial deliveries. the training has enabled me to emphasise the importance of using restraint only when required and how to suitably use skills to individual service user needs.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Confidence in delivery of level 3 skills and now have answers to some questions that have been asked of us as trainers. to instil confidence in other trainers when delivering NAPPI
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Refresh on skills to then pass on to services/staff. Being able to train staff to enable them to support service users in the community, releasing bed space for local LD hospitals
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award secure surpine hold with minimum impact on the individual the course will be delivered to individual teams that at the moment are having difficulties with the previous holds hopefully this will aid their confidence when supporting an individual with challenging behaviour.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award Safer working practice when considering the use of restrictive restraint
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award be able to deliver to the teams to ensure improved staff and service user safety from a recovery focused approach which will lead to better therapeutic relationships
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Three Trainers Certification Award I am going away with the confidence to train others in RPI. I am more confident and able to understand about RPIs.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will be able to train the Senad community staff before they go to the other locations within the company.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I feel I am more confident in the skills and knowledge I now have to deliver the course. I feel that I understand better how to use different modules to deliver good NAPPI courses to my learners. I will be more confident and able to make my future courses interesting and different from those I delivered last year. This will benefit learners and help me hold their attention to the subject and will therefore learn more.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I will feel more confident when training and will have more examples to use and have a much better level of understanding.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I shall develop my training delivery to include glue pieces: person of influence and developing partnerships.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I feel more confident to take the skills and deliver them in my teams. I have learnt a number of different skills and gained advice from more experienced trainers.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Gave me once again the enthusiasm to endeavour, to integrate NAPPI principles through as many procedures as is possible within the service.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Enhance training and increase skills of staff. Excellent reminder of skills I dont always include in training.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award I will review my delivery with new information and feel confident about what I have been delivering. I will take on board guidance and knowledge and constructive criticism given by others. I would like to utilise the person of influence training myself to expand NAPPI in our company and look to alter documentation to be NAPPI friendly.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Although some modules are classed as glue pieces, I feel that these are powerful and I will aim to teach/include these within staff meetings across services where these will be needed. Also as a trainer I need to think more about the grouping of staff on the courses to ensure the most applicable modules are used and skills taught. It will help me to guide and teach staff to better support service users whose behaviour may present as dangerous. It will give them important strategies to avoid RPI at all costs, however if the real need arises in the persons best interests staff can safely apply this level of support.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Training reinforces my CPD. I will introduce with confidence. Refresh staff again and check for learning.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I have taken when delivering modules, words which different people use to describe the action that is being done, which best describes more than words I am currently using. It will give myself and the staff I am training the confidence to work daily with more challenging clients that we have.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Try to avoid RPI's. It will enhance what is already good. always room for improvement and making aspects greener for service users and staff
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award I hope to become more precise to better honour the design of NAPPI delivery. I know the training will have corrected any "drift" that has occurred in my delivery. I have also picked up some new trainers tips that I will be able to use to make my presentations more effective
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award It will help me to review the course I deliver. Also to make sure I include the new modules in my next training sessions. I want to organise a refresher training session in 2 weeks so that i can practice the new skills I've learnt
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award Refreshing of my skills will make me more confident in delivering modules/skills in the future of my staff team. I have also taken away valuable information to enable me to support the staff team and my unit working with dementia patients. Also tips on improving my delivery in general. I have more confidence in delivering the physical skills
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award Now refreshed skills and terminology will again endeavour to instil in daily work practice for self and all staff It will enable me to refresh my service on all NAPPI skills
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award Hopefully wont need to use the RPI within my school, but have further develop my knowledge of the theory and practice and really enjoyed it.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award It will not only allow me to deliver NAPPI training to our staff but will help me to deliver meaningful health and safety training. I will be able to give a better insight into our students.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Greatly changing as we are moving the whole school over to NAPPI.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Safer working practice and confidence in myself which in turn will develop my confidence as a trainer and enable me to help my participants to develop their own ability and confidence at work.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I currently feel confident in the new skills and look forward to implementing them.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will feel much more confident in supporting my team and can already see myself implementing these skills.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Once embedded into our service, my working practice will hopefully ensure that the young people we care for have a better quality of life.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Again very clearly delivered and structured to enable me to deliver level 2 confidently. I feel the staff group within my school will feel this is very effective.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I have gained a wealth of information to now pass on to the staff in my school which will embed NAPPI way of thinking into the team.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Improved training confidence. Upto date info for deliveries.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Implement training out of the training room. Implement checks for learning throughout ACUK. Thanks again Andy!!!!
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Re-certification Trainers Award All of level 2 physical skills as have not trained it before. I will hopefully be aware of any common errors from learners.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Ensure all staff are trained where appropriate. I will implement the different teaching methods I have found useful from other trainers and am looking forward to sharing my experience with my colleagues. Thank you.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will deliver level 2 training to my allocated divisions.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Think before acting! Look for improved interventions and outcomes for service users and staff.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Follow SMART principles and cascade training to staff across care services.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Try to secure a schedule of training and refresher training sooner rather than later.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Use the knowledge of NAPPI principles when working with staff and service users.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I have a good awareness of RPIs but realise they should be used as a last resort, concentrate on supporting individuals to stay within the green area.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Implementation of NAPPI with staff and embedding this into a culture change within our part of the organisation.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Apply the smart principles and use more redirection tactics.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will understand all behaviours are a way to communicate. I will also use my techniques I have been taught, not just physical but also psychological in my workplace.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I loved seeing how the training can make things better, hope people have confidence in me to help, it is better being on-site with people who will be more likely to come to me for advice.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will assess an incident before making decisions to use restrictive physical Interventions. I will think much more about using smart principles to support service users. I will ensure all service users risk assessments and behaviour scales are appropriate. I will refer to the NAPPI principles more often to support service users, I will promote that restrictive physical interventions are not an answer to all behaviours.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award I will be more confident as to when to apply restrictive physical interventions. I will be able to instil confidence with my colleagues that techniques that I train today are safe and effective.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level Two Trainers Award Hopefully I shall deliver the training to the staff team with more confidence.
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award Consider the green behaviour scale in more depth and encourage staff to think about this more
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One and Two Re-certification Trainers Award Always feel revitalised after my training and full of new ideas
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award revise contents of one day course to incorparate Green Behaviour Scale. Make more reference to SMART (+ N.10) etc. outside of the actual training situation. Include recording skills in one day course
Non Abusive Psychological & Physical Intervention Level One Re-certification Trainers Award


Managing Challenging Behaviour Level 1

Croydon (Selsdon Park)06-11-2017
Scarborough (Palm Court)05-02-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)19-03-2018
Nottingham (Eastwood Hall)04-06-2018
Scarborough (Palm Court)10-09-2018


Managing Challenging Behaviour Level 2

Scarborough (Palm Court)25-09-2017
Scarborough (Palm Court)06-03-2018
Scarborough (Palm Court)24-09-2018


Managing Challenging Behaviour Level 1 Recertification

Scarborough (Crown Hotel)02-10-2017
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)12-03-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)23-04-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)23-04-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)23-04-2018
Nottingham (Eastwood Hall)14-05-2018
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)11-06-2018
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)22-10-2018
Croydon (Selsdon Park)19-11-2018


Managing Challenging Behaviour Level 2 Recertification

Scarborough (Crown Hotel)04-10-2017
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)14-03-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)25-04-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)25-04-2018
Nottingham (Eastwood Hall)16-05-2018
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)13-06-2018
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)24-10-2018
Croydon (Selsdon Park)21-11-2018


Managing Challenging Behaviour Level 3

Scarborough (Crown Hotel)05-10-2017
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)15-03-2018
Bristol (Future Inn)26-04-2018
Nottingham (Eastwood Hall)17-05-2018
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)14-06-2018
Scarborough (Crown Hotel)25-10-2018
Croydon (Selsdon Park)23-11-2018


Senior Trainers' Conference

We will shortly be adding more dates






Email NAPPI about this course

Call 01723 353353 to speak to NAPPI


NAPPI uk Ltd, 64 Falsgrave Road, Scarborough, North Yorkshire, YO12 5AX

Select font size: A A A